Building Body Composition and Maintaining Weight While Battling IBD

For many of us, when we’re initially diagnosed with IBD or when we flare, we experience weight fluctuations. The number on the scale may plummet during times when eating anything hurts or seems to make symptoms worse. The number on the scale may skyrocket when we’re on prednisone and not only retaining fluid, but also wanting to eat everything in sight.

Andrew Jagim, PhD, CSCS*D, CISSN was diagnosed with ulcerative colitis in 2014 after being infected with an intestinal parasite (Giardia). He managed to remain in remission for a few years until things went downhill quickly at the end of 2016. He dropped 50 pounds over the course of 3-4 months, was going to the bathroom 15-plus times a day, was running constant fevers, severely fatigued, anemic, and had little appetite. In the spring of 2017, after two weeks on TPN and several days in the hospital, he decided that a sub-total colectomy was his best option at the time. Since then, Andrew’s battle has been a rollercoaster of ups and downs, resulting in 12 colorectal surgeries.

Sports and fitness have always been a huge part of Andrew’s life—so much so, that he made a career out of it. He has a doctorate in exercise physiology, is a certified strength & conditioning specialist and a certified sports nutritionist, so he has an extensive background when it comes to understanding the important roles of exercise and nutrition for health and performance.

“Throughout my life, a large part of my identity has always been tied to my physical appearance. I’ve always been known as someone who is athletic, big, and strong with a high state of fitness. I struggled immensely during my flares and surgery recoveries when I couldn’t work out, when I looked sick or couldn’t stop losing weight. It was like I was losing a sense of who I was and who I identified with. When I looked it the mirror, it pained me to see my hard-earned muscle just “falling off” when I was too sick or weak to workout. However, I have always been determined to rebuild my body and regain what I lost.”

This week on Lights, Camera, Crohn’s—a look at the impact disease flares and surgeries can have on body composition, and how you can try and counteract the changes through diet and exercise.

A cornerstone of the disease itself is a high state of inflammation – most of which is centralized to the gut; however, this can also have systemic effects thereby resulting in widespread joint pain, fatigue and even a state of anabolic resistance within muscle tissue. Essentially, this makes it challenging to maintain or increase muscle mass during a period of high disease activity. This can be coupled with a reduction in appetite which can exacerbate body weight loss and muscle loss.

Surgeries can range from minimally invasive procedures to treat a fistula to much larger and complex operations such as removal of sections of the bowel and placement of a stoma for an ostomy. Depending on the magnitude of the surgery, patients often must modify diet and physical activity based on the recommendations of the surgeon.

These modifications will likely lead to decrements in body weight, muscle, strength, and endurance in the short-term; especially individuals who may have been highly active prior to the surgery. However, in patients who may be extremely ill at the time of surgery, the procedure may help them regain lost weight and strength as their body may finally be able to heal and recover from the inflammatory cascade brought on by IBD.

The Case Study Andrew Conducted

A year and a half after Andrew’s colectomy, he decided to schedule the second step for the J-pouch procedure. However, prior to, he decided to take advantage of this unique opportunity and conduct a case study on himself to document the changes in body composition and performance throughout the recovery process. He was curious how a surgery like that would impact someone with his fitness state as most of the literature focused on smaller or more sedentary individuals. Leading up to surgery, he had been able to resume his regular fitness routine and got his weight close to where it had been for most of his adult life.

“As seen in the figure below from my published case study, there were significant declines in body weight (-10.5%), lean body mass (-9.9%) and endurance (-40.3%) 4-weeks post-surgery. At 16 weeks postoperatively, most parameters were near their baseline levels (within 1–7%), with the exception of my peak endurance, which was still 20.4% below baseline. Thankfully, I was able to leverage my educational background and expertise in exercise physiology and nutrition to use targeted exercise and nutritional strategies to retrain my body and build my physique back up,” explained Andrew.

The balancing act of trial and error

As many IBD patients know, there are a lot of nuances, misconceptions, and unknowns regarding how diet impacts disease. For Andrew, it has been a lot trial and error to find foods that worked for him and helped him achieve his goals.

“Early in the recovery stage, just getting my appetite back and trying to eat more while not interfering with any post-operative dietary recommendations was always my goal. For me, this meant trying to eat about 2,500 – 2,750 calories and 150-170 grams of protein per day. In my opinion, these are the two most important dietary goals when it comes to regaining any weight (especially muscle mass) following surgery or during a flare. It will also help support the tissue and incision recovery following surgery”

Regarding exercise, strength training, is the most effective form of exercise to regain lean body mass following surgery. However, most colorectal surgeons (for good reasons) impose a lifting restriction of no more than ~10-15 lbs. for about 6 weeks following surgery to allow the incisions to heal and avoid the risk of hernia.

“For my larger surgeries, this was easy to abide by as I was in so much pain and was so fatigued that it was a struggle to just get dressed and ready for the day, so there was no temptation to get back in the weight room any time soon. But for the smaller surgeries, as I got closer to the 6-week mark, I was anxious to get back to my old routine. I took a very conservative approach and used a lot of alternative training techniques (i.e. blood flow restriction training, isometrics, resistance bands, etc.) to elicit an adequate training stimulus while not having to lift heavy weights and to avoid injury,” said Andrew.

Andrew’s main piece of advice about life with IBD? “Be prepared for a rollercoaster of changes to both your body composition and physical abilities throughout battles with IBD – especially during a flare or following surgery. Unfortunately this also will likely take a toll on your mental health as well, or at least it certainly did for me. However, just know that you can always get it back in time and more often than not, come back even stronger. Be patient and give your body rest when needed but otherwise keep grinding.”

Everyone has their own battles they are fighting

“I think my experience with IBD has taught me that everyone has their own battles they are fighting – even if they don’t show it. Additionally, it is also a reminder that not all disabilities are visible as a lot of people are probably unaware that I live with a permanent ostomy. I have chosen to keep a lot of my health struggles private and I think a lot of people will be surprised when they hear what I’ve endured over the past five years as I have still managed to have a successful career and not miss much work – despite all the surgeries and time spent feeling very ill.”

Andrew’s IBD journey also shifted his research focus a bit and challenged him to apply my knowledge of how to increase performance, strength and muscle mass in athletes towards a more clinical application.

“A lot of the strategies that work well with athletes can be modified and used in clinical settings as several of the benefits (i.e. increased muscle, strength, endurance, energy, etc.) may also help improve quality of life in patients will a chronic illness, those who are critically ill, or those recovering from surgery. It’s just a matter of making the appropriate modifications and fitting them to the current need,” said Andrew.

Here’s how you can connect with Andrew:

  • Facebook: Andrew Jagim
  • Twitter: @Ajagim
  • Instagram: Sports Science/Performance Nutrition Focused: @andrewjagim
  • Instagram: IBD/Ostomy Focused: @the_chronic_comeback

Healing Holistically: 7 Helpful Tips from a Nutritionist with Crohn’s

When you’re diagnosed with IBD as a teenager, it’s safe to say, your disease plays a big role in your future. Brittany Duffy is a 24-year-old from Canada who is already a decade into her journey with Crohn’s disease. Her diagnosis inspired her to become a Registered Holistic Nutritionist.

This past March, Brittany had bowel resection surgery that also involved the removal of her appendix. She is currently medication free and choosing to support her body naturally through diet, stress management, and supplements. Surgery

Before we dig into this week’s article—I want to preface this by saying medication is not a failure. While diet and lifestyle alone work for some with IBD, it certainly doesn’t work for most. As someone who has been on medication for 15-plus years, I understand what it’s like to aspire to be med-free, but not be able to successfully make the transition without putting your health at risk. Please don’t go off your medication without first consulting with your gastroenterologist and care team. At the same time, even if you are on medication, your body, overall health, and well-being can benefit immensely by living a “clean” lifestyle.

When Brittany was first diagnosed in October 2010, she was put on Humira, which worked well to stop her flares. Unfortunately, the medication caused a host of other issues. She experienced anemia, muscle and joint pain, depression, anxiety, disrupted sleep-wake cycle, dry skin, brittle nails, hair loss, constant constipation, and uncomfortable abdominal pains. Sunny day

“I am so inspired by other IBD warriors, it reminds me that I’m not alone and to be grateful for the health I have. So many others have it much worse, so each day that is a good day I embrace and make the most of it,” said Brittany. “We never know when a flare will strike. There are tactics in my toolbox I have now to reduce gut inflammation, and I am passionate about sharing this information with others.”

7 tips for managing IBD holistically

  1. Stress management: It’s critical to manage your stress levels, because when the body is in a constant state of stress, simple functions like digestion, absorption, and elimination cannot occur, resulting as nutrient deficiencies, constipation, diarrhea, low energy, and whole-body inflammation. Stress turns off digestion and can trigger uncomfortable digestive symptoms, like gas and bloating, heart burn, acid reflux, constipation, or diarrhea. When we are stressed it can increase inflammation and reduce the chance of reaching remission. Some stress management practices include deep breathing when feeling overwhelmed, yoga or gentle movement, getting outside and being with nature, and also self-care (one activity a day that makes you calm – music, reading, calling a friend, journaling, physical exercise.)
  1. Choose local, fresh, quality foods: Fresh is best. If it doesn’t come from Mother Nature and you don’t understand the ingredient list, the body won’t either. The body recognizes real foods versus processed and boxed items. There are also beneficial enzymes, fiber, and antioxidants in fresh food that helps reduce inflammation and IBD flares.
  2. Avoid antibiotic and hormone fed meat, dairy, and eggs: Antibiotics and added hormones in our food can disrupt our gut bacteria balance and allow harmful bacteria to thrive, which may contribute to IBD symptoms and poor nutrient absorption. Our good bacteria help digest food and increases nutrient absorption, but if our gut bacteria balance has more harmful than good bacteria, our gut health will become affected.
  3. Practice mindful eating: Eating when rushed or in a hurry can delay digestion and may create symptoms of gas and bloating, diarrhea, or constipation. IBD often creates limited food choices due to food sensitivities or trigger foods, bowel blockages, scar tissue, high fiber foods, raw nuts and seeds or fruits and vegetables. If we create a stress-free eating environment it may help reduce digestive stress and allow our body’s a chance to break down “safe” foods easier, while also reducing the risk of triggering a flare or an inflamed gut. A stress-free eating environment includes sitting down while eating, away from stress and distractions, try to enjoy the food you’re eating, become of aware of how you feel while eating, and find pleasure in food. Take a few breaths and put utensils down in between bites to allow yourself time to eat. Eating should be an enjoyable routine, not something we rush through.
  1. Focus on anti-inflammatory foods that may help reduce IBD flares:

Healthy fats: avocado, hummus, coconut oil, coconut yogurt/milk, raw nut butter

Lean proteins: wild caught fish, chicken, turkey

Digestible fiber: sautéed spinach, carrots, zucchini, bell peppers, soaked or ground nuts and seeds, pineapple, strawberries, bananas, mango

Herbs and spices: cinnamon, cardamom, turmeric, fenugreek

Tea: ginger, peppermint, green, lemon, chamomile

  1. Understand Food combining: Certain foods digest at different rates, which may result as sugar and protein fermentation in the gut. Uncomfortable symptoms like gas, bloating, heart burn, constipation, diarrhea, and feeling tired can result when there is a compromised digestive system and poor food combinations. Try to eat foods that will digest the quickest first, like fruit, to avoid protein and fat fermentation in the gut. Try to avoid proteins and sugary/starchy carbohydrates together. Proteins and fats are okay with vegetables, but should be eaten separately from grains. The purpose of food combining is to improve healthy nutrient absorption and reduce bacterial overgrowths in the gut by reducing a food source, the sugars. Food combining does not have to be practiced several times a day, but it can help long term to reduce digestive stress, and improve overall gut health.
  2. Eat “Alive” foods: Quality probiotics, fermented food (raw and unpasteurized) like sauerkraut, kimchi, tempeh, coconut yogurt/kefir. These contain beneficial bacteria that supports healthy digestion, nutrient absorption, energy, and may help reduce inflammation.

Summer

Now that Brittany is not on medication, she meets annually with her GI specialist to get blood work done once or twice a year. She also has a colonoscopy every three years. Her next scope is scheduled for October. If she recognizes any changes to her health, she contacts her physician or requests blood work. Since Brittany shifted her focus on diet, supplements, and lifestyle, she has improved nutrient absorption and reduced the inflammation in her body.

You can connect with Brittany Duffy, RHN on Instagram and Facebook: @digestionwithbrittany.

 

Diet and Nutrition: The role they play in IBD

Nutrition and IBD. Just saying those two words together makes me feel like I’m running through a rabbit hole, unsure where to turn….and I’ve lived with Crohn’s disease for more than 14 years. Everywhere you look, you see people claiming to “heal their gut” through diet alone, while sharing diet hacks that “cure” IBD, when in fact there is no cure.

Unfortunately, my first experience with a dietitian, days after my diagnosis, was not a positive one. She came into my hospital room and was very doomsday and black and white about what my future held. The conversation led me to believe I would never eat raw fruit or veggies, salads were out, and fried foods were always a no-no. I was told I could have white bread, white pasta, cooked veggies, and plain chicken from that day forward. Hearing this made grappling with the diagnosis much more difficult.

My experience is hopefully not a typical one for those in the IBD community. Dietitians can be and are key players in our overall care teams. They help guide our nutrition and lead us on a path to better health. Chances are if you or someone you love has IBD you’ve come across the laundry list of IBD-friendly diets (SCD, anti-inflammatory, paleo, etc.). If you’ve found a diet that works for you, that’s great—but it can be extremely dangerous and damaging to use your own personal experience to sway others, especially if you preach to go off all medication and focus on diet alone.

Just as IBD manifests uniquely in every person, trigger foods vary, too. UPMC_HEADSHOT_HIGHRES_ALCHOUFETE_THEREZIA_DIETITIAN_20191113This week—I interview Therezia AlChoufete, a Registered Dietitian Nutritionist (RDN) who specializes in Gastrointestinal Diseases, to set the record straight about this area of disease management. Therezia completed her Bachelor of Science in Neuroscience and her Master of Science in Nutrition and Dietetics from the University of Pittsburgh.

NH: What role does diet/nutrition play in treating IBD?

TA: “A huge role – symptom management is very helpful to improve quality of life for patients with IBD, and many patients have difficulty understanding what they should or should not eat. A Registered Dietitian Nutritionist can help to identify trigger foods and other factors that may be affecting digestion & GI symptoms, nutrition for ostomy management, modifications to diet before and after surgery, recipe modifications to improve GI tolerance, and much more depending on each patient’s medical history.”

NH: When you’re given a patient with IBD, what type of information do you share in those appointments?

TA: “I see my patients in an outpatient setting – this allows me to review the patient’s goals, assess their nutrition status, and determine an individualized plan with every patient. Information can vary depending on each patient’s unique history, goals, and food tolerance.”

NH: Each person’s body responds differently to specific foods, everyone has different triggers, how do you create a plan that is tailored to everyone, rather than saying “all people with IBD need to stay away from XX”?

TA: “There is definitely no one-diet-fits-all approach for IBD. I typically review the patient’s food history, their unique food tolerances, and provide a plan according to each person’s goals and disease status. I try my best to avoid food restriction and liberalize the diet as tolerated by each patient.” brooke-lark-08bOYnH_r_E-unsplash

NH: What are the most common questions and concerns you hear from patients?

TA: “A very common question is what food/supplements can I eat to fix my symptoms – unfortunately, there is not a simple answer. But this leaves us some room to discuss food triggers in more detail and review ways to achieve a well-balanced diet.”

NH: Why is working with a nutritionist so critical for those with IBD?

TA: “Registered Dietitian Nutritionists are food and nutrition experts. We use science-based evidence to provide recommendations that are specific to each person’s medical history. This may include review of micronutrient deficiencies, hydration status, fluid build-up (sometimes following use of steroids), medication side effects, risks of malnutrition (which can occur in all body sizes), supplement questions, and so much more. An RDN can provide individualized medical nutrition therapy to minimize GI symptoms and optimize gut health in conjunction with medical plans provided by gastroenterologists.”

NH: What type of difference do you hope to make in a person’s patient journey? 

TA: “My hope is to help patients liberalize their diet and improve their quality of life. It is very important to me to help patients realize that they have a team of professionals that can help them manage their IBD. I enjoy working with a team of clinicians to target medical, behavioral, and nutritional health concerns to optimize care for each individual.”brandless-18lr202tDKY-unsplash

NH: What advice do you have for patients who are in the middle of a flare up?

TA: “Communication with your Gastroenterologist is very important if you feel like you are having flare-like symptoms in order to receive proper treatment. Sometimes, foods that are typically tolerated during times of remission are not tolerated during a flare, and an RDN can help you determine a softer diet that is easier to digest based on your individual needs.”

NH: The term “healing the gut with food” is commonly heard within the IBD community. What’s your belief on that vs. using diet as a combination therapy with medication?

TA: “Unfortunately, diet cannot cure IBD. It can improve some symptoms, but it is so important to work with your doctor to receive proper medical treatment for the disease, follow up with a dietitian to optimize your diet, and address any behavioral health management with your therapist or psychiatrist.”

Connect with Therezia here:

Twitter: @AppetiteOfMind

Instagram: @appetite_of_mind

Additional Resources:

Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation: https://www.crohnscolitisfoundation.org/diet-and-nutrition

International Foundation for Gastrointestinal Disorders: https://www.iffgd.org/other-disorders/inflammatory-bowel-disease.html

United Ostomy Associations of America: https://www.iffgd.org/other-disorders/inflammatory-bowel-disease.html